Paul Hammant's Blog: Monorepos with recursive or directed-graph build technologies?
Sam’s Twitter Storify thingamy “In which I discuss Monorepos” is still generating conversation. I thought I’d drill in to the build-technology choices you have for Monorepos.
|Build from which directory?||Always the base dir of checkout||Base or module directory|
|How to build one module only?||Implicate it from base dir||Be in the directory in question|
|Third party dependencies?||Declared once for all||Declared per module|
|Third party dep upgrade idiom?||Lockstep upgrades||Piecemeal upgrades|
|Module inter-dependencies?||Full path from base declared inline||Declared by name in dependant module|
|Build tech can intelligently skip modules?||By design, yes||Yes, with extra build flags|
|References to parent modules are -||implicit ‘..’ directory refs within source tree||acquired from artifact cache/repo by group/name/version|
|If you checked out a sub-module only?||You could not build it||You could build it|
|Required repo organization?||Very organized, very consistent||Modestly organized and possible inconsistency a module team’s choice|
|RAM-style build cache?||Fine-grained would be possible but hard||Fine-grained possible but very hard|
|Monorepo scales up to?||Tens of thousands of committers depending on VCS choice||Hundreds of committers|
|Version number of built products||Lockstep versioning, or unversioned||Lockstep versioning or per-module versioning|
|Can be used with large team sizes?||Yes||Yes|
|Circular modular dependencies allowed?||No||No|
|Circular dependencies hidden via third-party deps?||Nearly impossible||Possible|
|Requires you to do lockstep deployments?||No||No|
|Cross module atomic commits possible?||Yes||Yes|
Buck, Bazel (nee Blaze), Pants, Selenium’s CrazyFun are all directed graph build technologies.
Maven and Gradle (for Java at least) are the two main recursive build technologies.
The dividing feature you will most be affected by is lockstep upgrades. With the directed graph build systems are going to make you upgrade a dep for all modules and all times in one go. That seems frightening and an upfront cost but it is totally worth it. One pair of committers is going to upgrade “log4j” for everyone in one commit, and run a very big pre-commit build to ensure that nobody is going to complain.
With the recursive build systems, things like “log4j” could be upgraded in different modules at different times. Doing an
upgrade on a module by module basis is going to be easier to complete (Google once struggled to upgrade JUnit from
3.8 to 4.x in a single commit). Easier to complete - great - but what if you didn’t complete? What if you observe there’s a spread of declared versions of a dep. Because “the business” doesn’t know how to price up “technical
in a codebase, that spread could never get addressed. You can also still get the spread if you attempt to centralize the
declarations of dependencies in recursive build tools, or at least small complexities in use.
The problem is “COULD” is “HAS ALREADY” for 99.5% of enterprises, and they almost never pull back from that situation. Lockstep upgrades are totally worth it. Maven, Gradle and alike should gain the equivalent of a “–no-dependency-variance” build flag, to allow builds to fail fast in a spread situation.
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